To what extent are detection and prevention important considerations when dealing with plagiarism cases among international students? Refer to the ideas and research conducted by Jocoy & DiBiase (2006) and Kier (2014).
A numerous number of countries around the world have lack of academic integrity resources, which make international students unaware of what plagiarism is. Many students believe that copying from books or internet is appropriate and no one is going to investigate even if a few words. Whilst, the violation of academic integrity is one type of plagiarism, "Plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else's language, ideas, or other original materials without acknowledging its source" (as cited in Jocoy and Dibiase et al., 2006, P.2). This essay will discuss detecting and preventing plagiarism between international student and increase student's awareness of plagiarism.
Firstly, according to Jocoy and Dibiase (2006) states that significant increase in ability to detect plagiarism has improved in the last ten years, before using the technology widely, the manual detection was limited. For instance, two people’s manually matching papers that contained citations of the same source for literal copying lack paraphrasing (Karlins, 1988 cited in Jocoy and Dibiase et al., 2006)."The use of an automated plagiarism detection service noticeably improved our ability to find and document instances of copy-and-paste plagiarism. Manual decoction missed nearly 4 in 5 cases of plagiarism, such as a paragraph copied word-for-word. " (Jocoy and Dibiase et al.,2006, P.6) these days, technology makes it easier for both student and instructors, students easier to copy and paste from websites and for instructors simply to detect violations (Tenbusch,2002 cited in Jocoy and Dibiase et al.,2006). In addition, many online search engines such as Google allow the investigator to detect copied phrases. Whilst commercially services available, plagiarism detection software and online services (EVE, Turintin.com) matching each student paper to online documents or essay to find and give a decision of matching text (Jocoy and Dibiase, Dibiase). Ellery (2008, cited In Kier et al., 2014) plagiarism among Student working in a second language higher than domestic speakers. According to McCabe (2006, cited In Jocoy and Dibiase et al., 2006) state that, there are a number of reasons for this, including common awkwardness with the language and various cultural behavior's toward sharing and idiom of ideas. One more study found that, domestic English speakers involved in more plagiarism that international speakers, there is no reason why their consequence vary from other studies (McGee, 2004, cited In Jocoy and Dibiase et al., 2006). Nowadays, to improve our ability to match and detect online plagiarism within our international student's assignment using various ways. This allowed us to assess and compare the performance of automated and manual ways of plagiarism detection (Jocoy and Dibiase, 2006).
Secondly, while recognizing the importance of plagiarism detection, educators have a liability to develop and ensure the level of academic integrity, which is a basic dogma of international students (Hersh, 1977, cited In Jocoy and Dibiase et al., 2006). There have been many types of research to prevent plagiarism, some of them were effective more than others. Some mention that students who received instruction about preventing plagiarism later plagiarized less than other students without instruction, but still stick to do plagiarized acts (Jocoy & Dibiase, 2006, cited In Kier et al., 2014). According to Landau (2002, cited In Kier et al., 2014) study, better than giving feedback to students should present them to "real-world" example of plagiarism to improve their ability to recognize the plagiarism and their paraphrasing. Barry (2006, cited In Kier et al., 2014) found that the students who exercise on paraphrasing have significant improvement in definitions of plagiarism and also were significantly better than students without such exercises. However, by engaging the class in four sessions, using six student-to-student paraphrasing practices was a success (Shirley, 2004, cited In Kier et al., 2014) some instructors found this method too time-consuming. Vardi (2012, cited In Kier et al., 2014) study, helping students to achieve "authorial identity" has resulted in a promising approach, these engaging students to foster their own voices. However, another approach comes from Kirsch (2012, cited In Kier et al., 2014) who make a seminar with interactive multimedia performances and information relating to plagiarism, paraphrasing, citation and more other activities. Theirs is a work in advance, but they were able to understand that students have most awkwardness in paraphrasing and widespread knowledge, even after taking the seminar. It seems that more survey is necessary to determine the situation in which practice is useful and probably the type of exercise that suit special international students.
To conclude, understand Academic integrity is very important to prevent plagiarism and improve ways to detect plagiarism among international students. I think there are many methods to detect and prevent plagiarism, "To learning proper citation rules and how to avoid plagiarism, are essential skills for students in higher education" (Kier et al., 2014, P.6), focusing more on how to avoid plagiarism more than detect it will be the best method for international students.
- Jocoy & DiBiase (2006) Plagiarism by Adult Learners Online: A case study in detection and remediation*
- Kier (2014) How well do Canadian distance education student understand plagiarism? *
- Karlins, M., Michaels, C., and Podlogar, S., (1988) An empirical investigation of actual cheating in a large sample of undergraduates. Research in Higher Education 29(4), 359-364.
- Soto, J., Anand, S., and McGee, E. (2004, July/August). Plagiarism Avoidance: An empirical study examining teaching strategies. Journal of College Science Teaching 33(7), 42-48. Tenbusch, J. P. (2002). Keeping student honest in the electronic age.
- Ellery, K. (2008). Undergraduate plagiarism: A pedagogical perspective. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 507–516.
- McCabe, D. L., and Pavela, G. (n.d.). Ten principles of academic integrity. College Administration Publications, Inc. Retrieved April 13, 2006
- Kohlberg. L., and Hersh, R. H. (1977). Moral Development: A review of the theory. Theory Into Practice, 16(2), 53 – 59.
- Barry, E. S. (2006). Can paraphrasing practice help students define plagiarism? College Student Journal, 40(2), 377-384.
- Shirley, S. (2004). The art of paraphrase. Teaching English in the Two Year College, 32(2), 186-188.
- Vardi, I. (2012): Developing students’ referencing skills: A matter of plagiarism, punishment, and morality or of learning to write critically? Higher Education Research & Development, 31(6), 921-930.
- Kirsch, B. A., & Bradley, L. (2012). Distance education and plagiarism prevention at the University Of South Carolina Upstate. Journal Of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 6(2), 79-99.